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This paper explores Italian and German propaganda in Spain during the Spanish Civil War, looking at how both nations exploited the conflict  capitalizing on the propagandistic value of the conflict for their anti-Bolshevik campaign, while looking at Spain as a bridgehead from which to influence other areas and how they interacted both between them and with the emerging Francoist state. In so doing, it shows how despite Italy being in many ways at the forefront of the intervention, the development of tight Nazi-Falangist relations, among other factors, led to the replacement of Fascist Italy by Nazi Germany as a model for the rebirth of the nation in Spain. This illustrates how Italian cultural diplomacy had begun to shift away from the internationalization of Fascism to a policy more focused on the Italian communities abroad, and sheds light on the different roles these countries came to play in Spain after the war.

Mercedes Peñalba-Sotorrío is senior lecturer in European Modern History at Manchester Metropolitan University. Her research interests are the impact of war on neutral countries, the history of Francoism, and German-Spanish relations during the Second World War.  She is currently working on a monograph on the development of Nazi propaganda campaigns in Spain and Spanish-German relations during the Second World War.

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