Open Access and journals
Open Access publishing is now well established in academic journals, where articles either appear as OA on first publication in a journal (known as 'Gold OA') or where a version of the published article becomes available as OA via an institutional repository after an agreed embargo period (so-called 'Green OA'). In the latter case, access to the published version in the journal usually remains behind a paywall.
Many funding bodies now require that research findings published as articles must be fully open access. Publishers of Gold OA content typically levy a fee (often known as an 'author processing charge' or 'APC') for making work available in this form, usually paid by the funder or an author’s institution.
The so-called ‘hybrid’ Gold and Green OA system has been accepted by UK and European research councils but is now being challenged by Plan S, a research initiative adopted by UK Research & Innovation (UKRI) in September 2018 which mandates new Open Access publication protocols for UK researchers (including historians) supported by specified funding bodies.
For ongoing discussions regarding these developments see the Royal Historical Society's reviews on Plan S and historians.